Jonathan Herring, criminal lawyer at Oxford University, enters a legal and philosophical conversation on deception and how it relates to entitlement, seduction and bodily autonomy.
Here we clarified key terms and definitions to understand the topic better.
“Cat-fishing is an informal expression of a person who creates a false identity online in order to lure someone into establishing a relationship.”
“Coercive control is a strategic form of ongoing oppression and terrorism used to instil fear. The abuser will use tactics, such as limiting access to money or monitoring all communication, as a controlling effort.”
“A “conditional consent” case involves ostensible consent to sexual intercourse being vitiated, in circumstances where the conditions of the consent have not been met.”
“Rape by deception is an action whereby a person obtains sexual agreement and has sexual intercourse of any type by fraud, deception, misrepresentation, or impersonation.”
“Gaslighting is a form of emotional abuse that’s seen in abusive relationships. It’s the act of manipulating a person by forcing them to question their thoughts, memories, and the events occurring around them.”
“An omission is a general term for a failure to act, but it can have broad connotations in day to day life and the implications of such actions vary from situation to situation.”
Here are facts and figures on the topic.
Out of the 313 men participating, 23.4% admitted to having used “deception” at least once since the age of 14.
Of the 530 women surveyed, 6.6% admitted to having used deception at least once since the age of 14, with the most common tactic being pretending to be on birth control.
Here are a few quick facts and some easy to understand information on this topic. Feel free to post to your social media accounts to get your friends involved.
Check out the following resources to learn more about nudity and consent.
Insecure Otis has all the answers when it comes to sex advice, thanks to his therapist mom. So rebel Maeve proposes a school sex-therapy clinic.
Sweet Bobby is a live, multi-part investigation in search of one of the world’s most sophisticated catfishers. It’s a story about who we are online, and how social media can be weaponized as a tool of abuse and coercion.
Deception and consent are topics that are often misunderstood because of the myths surrounding them, here we want to clean up some of the most prominent misconceptions.
Consent is based upon a fully-informed ongoing practice of checking in with each other in sexual encounters. In the case of deception or where facts are concealed, there is no consent. In other areas of law e.g. contracts, fraud results in strict penalties.
People have different views on what is important to them about sex. It is not for anyone to say to someone, “this issue may be important to you but we think you should not care about it”. People can choose their own reasons and conditions for sex. They do not have to justify them.
If a person has a sexual relationship with a third party without their sexual partner’s knowledge it can be called cheating whether they tell their partner or not; however, if they continue a sexual relationship without mentioning the third party then it is deceptive rape because a decision based on full consent could not be made and the sexual autonomy has been severely harmed.
Check out these guidelines that help you to have conversations on consent.
Advice: Ask your sexual partner what aspects are important to them when it comes to their choice of their sexual partner to make sure you do not violate their boundaries.
Advice: It is always important to find ways to inform the victim if you know a deceptive rape is taking place so that they can protect their sexual autonomy and take necessary precautions to take tests in regards to their health.
Advice: Victims of deceptive rape do not know about the deceit and therefore most likely have a hard time believing you. Ideally, you present them with evidence but if they cannot or do not want to believe you then you need to understand that coercive control has a strong foothold on victims of deceptive rape.
Advice: Here is an example: If A agrees to sex with B on the condition that B is not married and if B is married and proceeds with sex, it is not the conditions are broken or withdrawn, they simply are not met. Conditions are key towards safeguarding each other’s sexual integrity and bodily autonomy.
Here we highlight prominent cases.
Assange, who was aware that it was the expressed wish of the injured party and a prerequisite of sexual intercourse that a condom be used, consummated unprotected sexual intercourse with her without her knowledge. It is an aggravating circumstance that Assange, who was aware that it was the expressed wish of the injured party and a prerequisite of sexual intercourse that a condom be used. still consummated unprotected sexual intercourse with her. The sexual act was designed to violate the injured party’s sexual integrity.
Stelthing is rape.
In 2009, California-resident Julio Morales was convicted for rape by fraud for sneaking into the dark bedroom of an 18-year old woman and having sex with her under the false pretence of being the woman’s boyfriend. The conviction was eventually overturned because the law of 1872 only criminalizes rape by fraud when someone impersonates a woman’s husband in order to get her consent. This loophole was closed when Assembly Bill 65 and Senate Bill 59 were signed into law in 2013.
Impersonation is one element that could lead to deceptive rape. When a person is being tricked into believing another person’s false identity they cannot make sure that their sexual integrity is safeguarded and may press charges against them.
D was a singing teacher who convinced V (a 16-year-old student) to let him do something to improve her singing voice. He was in fact having sexual intercourse with her. D was charged with rape. Although V had thought she consented, this was negated by fraud as to the quality and nature of the act and D was thus held liable.
The quality and nature of sexual acts and the false explanation of what is being done in a situation where there is a teacher-student relationship or a doctor-patient relationship that clearly marks grave power imbalances may show if rape by deception has taken place.
Especially in the USA states have different legislation when it comes to deceptive rape.
It’s a misdemeanour, classified as “sexual misconduct,” if consent was obtained by the use of any fraud or artifice.
Law: Ala. Code § 13A-6-65
Every person who induces any other person to engage in sexual intercourse, sexual penetration, oral copulation, or sodomy when his or her consent is procured by false or fraudulent representation or pretense that is made with the intent to create fear, and which does induce fear, and that would cause a reasonable person in like circumstances to act contrary to the person’s free will, and does cause the victim to so act, is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year or in the state prison for two, three, or four years.
Law: West’s Ann.Cal.Penal Code § 266c
(IE Criminal Defense)
It’s considered rape if there’s “sexual penetration … accomplished by fraud.”
Law: Tenn. Code Ann. §39-13-503
Section 76 provides two conclusive presumptions that the complainant did not consent to the activity and the defendant did not reasonably believe that the complainant consented. The prosecution must show that the defendant did the relevant act and that either of the circumstances in subsection 2 applies: the defendant intentionally deceived the complainant as to the “nature or the purpose of the act.” ( not the nature and quality of the act), or the defendant intentionally induced the complainant to consent by impersonation of a “person known personally to the complainant.”
Law: Conclusive presumptions (section 76 SOA 2003)
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